— Depression, Anxiety, Wellness, Family and Relationship
What is mental health?
The term ‘mental health’ is sometimes used to mean an absence of a mental disorder. It refers to our cognitive, behavioral, and emotional wellbeing – it is all about how we think, feel, and behave.
A mental illness is a disease that causes mild to severe disturbances in thought and/or behavior, resulting in an inability to cope with life’s ordinary demands and routines. There are more than 200 classified forms of mental illness.
Mental health can affect daily life, relationships, and even physical health. Mental health also includes a person’s ability to enjoy life – to attain a balance between life activities and efforts to achieve psychological resilience.
In this article, we will explain what is meant by the terms “mental health” and “mental illness.” We will also describe the most common types of mental disorder and how they are treated. The article will also cover some early signs of mental health problems.
“Emotional, behavioral, and social maturity or normality; the absence of a mental or behavioral disorder; a state of psychological well-being in which one has achieved a satisfactory integration of one’s instinctual drives acceptable to both oneself and one’s social milieu; an appropriate balance of love, work, and leisure pursuits.”
According to the WHO (World Health Organization), mental health is:
“… a state of well-being in which the individual realizes his or her own abilities, can cope with the normal stresses of life, can work productively and fruitfully, and is able to make a contribution to his or her community.”
The WHO stresses that mental health “is not just the absence of mental disorder.”
The most common types of mental illness are anxiety disorders, mood disorders, and schizophreniadisorders; below we explain each in turn:
Anxiety disorders are the most common types of mental illness.
The individual has a severe fear or anxiety, which is linked to certain objects or situations. Most people with an anxiety disorder will try to avoid exposure to whatever triggers their anxiety.
Examples of anxiety disorders include:
Panic disorder – the person experiences sudden paralyzing terror or a sense of imminent disaster.
Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) – this can occur after somebody has been through a traumatic event – something horrible or frightening that they experienced or witnessed. During this type of event, the person thinks that their life or other people’s lives are in danger. They may feel afraid or feel that they have no control over what is happening.
Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) – the person has obsessions and compulsions. In other words, constant stressful thoughts (obsessions), and a powerful urge to perform repetitive acts, such as hand washing (compulsion).
Phobias – these may include simple phobias (a disproportionate fear of objects), social phobias (fear of being subject to the judgment of others), and agoraphobia (dread of situations where getting away or breaking free may be difficult). We really do not know how many phobias there are – there could be thousands of types.
These are also known as affective disorders or depressive disorders. Patients with these conditions have significant changes in mood, generally involving either mania (elation) or depression. Examples of mood disorders include:
Major depression – the individual is no longer interested in and does not enjoy activities and events that they previously liked. There are extreme or prolonged periods of sadness.
Bipolar disorder – previously known as manic-depressive illness, or manic depression. The individual switches from episodes of euphoria (mania) to depression (despair).
Persistent depressive disorder – previously known as dysthymia, this is mild chronic (long term) depression. The patient has similar symptoms to major depression but to a lesser extent.
SAD (seasonal affective disorder) – a type of major depression that is triggered by lack of daylight. It is most common in countries far from the equator during late autumn, winter, and early spring.