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Celiac Disease: Causes, Symptoms, Treatments, Risk Factors, Diagnosis, Prevention

What is celiac disease?

Celiac disease is a digestive disorder caused by an abnormal immune reaction to gluten.

Celiac disease is a serious autoimmune disorder that can occur in genetically predisposed people where the ingestion of gluten leads to damage in the small intestine


Celiac disease is also known as:

  • gluten-sensitive enteropathy
  • sprue
  • nontropical sprue

Gluten is a protein found in foods made with wheat, barley, rye, and triticale. It is also found in oats that have been made in processing plants that handle other grains. Gluten can even be found in some medicines, vitamins, and lipsticks. Gluten intolerance, also known as gluten sensitivity, is characterized by the body’s inability to digest or break down gluten. Some people with gluten intolerance have a mild sensitivity to gluten, while others have celiac disease which is an autoimmune disorder.

In celiac disease, the immune response to gluten creates toxins that destroy the villi. Villi are tiny finger-like protrusions inside the small intestines. When the villi become damaged, the body is unable to absorb nutrients from food. This can lead to malnutrition and other serious health complications, including permanent intestinal damage.

Symptoms of celiac disease

Celiac disease symptoms usually involve the intestines and digestive system, but they can also affect other parts of the body. Children and adults tend to have a different set of symptoms.

Celiac disease symptoms in children

Children with celiac disease can feel tired and irritable. They may also be smaller than normal and have delayed puberty. Other common symptoms include:

  • persistent diarrhea or constipation
  • pale, fatty, foul-smelling stools
  • weight loss
  • abdominal pain
  • vomiting
  • abdominal bloating

Celiac disease symptoms in adults

Adults with celiac disease may experience digestive symptoms. In most cases, however, symptoms also affect other areas of the body. These symptoms may include:

  • irregular menstrual periods
  • infertility and miscarriage
  • iron-deficiency anemia
  • skin disorders
  • numbness and tingling in the hands and feet
  • joint pain and stiffness
  • weak, brittle bones
  • fatigue
  • seizures
  • tooth discoloration or loss of enamel
  • pale sores inside the mouth
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Dermatitis herpetiformis (DH) is another common symptom of celiac disease. DH is an intensely itchy skin rash made up of bumps and blisters. It may develop on the elbows, buttocks, and knees. DH affects approximately 15 to 25 percent of people with celiac disease. Those who do experience DH usually don’t have digestive symptoms.

It’s important to note that symptoms can vary from person to person depending on various factors, including:

  • the amount of gluten someone eats
  • the severity of intestinal damage
  • the length of time someone was breast-fed as an infant
  • the age someone started eating gluten

Some people with celiac disease have no symptoms. However, they may still develop long-term complications as a result of their disease.

Diagnosing celiac disease

Diagnosis begins with a physical examination and a medical history.

Doctors will also perform various tests to help confirm a diagnosis. People with celiac disease often have high levels of antiendomysium (EMA) and anti-tissue transglutaminase (tTGA) antibodies. These can be detected with blood tests. Tests are most reliable when they’re performed while gluten is still in the diet.

Common blood tests include:

  • alkaline phosphatase level test
  • serum albumin test
  • complete blood count (CBC)
  • liver function tests
  • cholesterol test

In people with DH, a skin biopsy can also help doctors diagnose celiac disease. During a skin biopsy, the doctor will remove tiny pieces of skin tissue for examination with a microscope. If the skin biopsy and blood test results indicate celiac disease, an internal biopsy may not be necessary.

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In cases where blood test or skin biopsy results are inconclusive, an upper endoscopy can be used to test for celiac disease. During an upper endoscopy, a thin tube called an endoscope is threaded through the mouth and down into the small intestines. A small camera attached to the endoscope allows the doctor to examine the intestines and to check for damage to the villi. The doctor can also perform an intestinal biopsy, which involves the removal of a tissue sample from the intestines for analysis.

Celiac disease risk factor

People who have other autoimmune diseases and certain genetic disorders are also more likely to have celiac disease. Some conditions associated with celiac disease include:

  • intestinal cancer
  • intestinal lymphoma
  • thyroid disease
  • autoimmune liver disease
  • Addison’s disease
  • Turner syndrome
  • Sjogren’s syndrome
  • lupus
  • rheumatoid arthritis
  • type 1 diabetes
  • Down syndrome
  • lactose intolerance

Celiac disease treatment

The only way to treat celiac disease is to permanently remove gluten from your diet. This allows the intestinal villi to heal and to begin absorbing nutrients properly. Your doctor will teach you how to avoid gluten while following a nutritious and healthy diet. They will also give you instructions on how to read food and product labels so you can identify any ingredients that contain gluten.

Symptoms can improve within days of removing gluten from the diet. However, you shouldn’t stop eating gluten until a diagnosis is made. Removing gluten prematurely may interfere with test results and lead to an inaccurate diagnosis.

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Celiac disease prevention


Maintaining a gluten-free diet isn’t easy. Fortunately, many companies are now making gluten-free products, which can be found at various grocery stores and specialty food stores. The labels on these products will say “gluten-free.”

If you have celiac disease, it is important to know which foods are safe. Here is a series of food guidelines that can help you determine what to eat and what to avoid.

Foods to avoid: 

Avoid unless the label says gluten-free:

  • beer
  • bread
  • sauces (includes soy sauce)
  • self-basting poultry
  • soups
  • crackers
  • croutons
  • gravies
  • imitation meats or seafood
  • cakes and pies
  • candy
  • cereals
  • cookies
  • oats
  • pasta
  • processed lunch meats, sausages, and hot dogs
  • salad dressings

Avoid the following ingredients:

  • farina
  • graham flour
  • semolina
  • triticale
  • bulgur
  • wheat
  • spelt
  • rye
  • barley
  • durum

You can eat these gluten-free grains and starches:

  • amaranth
  • quinoa
  • rice
  • tapioca
  • arrowroot
  • cornmeal
  • flour made from rice, soy, corn, potatoes, or beans
  • buckwheat
  • corn
  • pure corn tortillas

Foods to eat: 

Healthy, gluten-free foods include:

  • vegetables
  • wine, distilled liquors, ciders, and spirits
  • starchy vegetables like peas, potatoes, including sweet potatoes, and corn
  • rice, beans, and lentils
  • meats, fish, and poultry that haven’t been breaded, coated, or marinated
  • fruit
  • most dairy products

Your symptoms should improve within days to weeks of making these dietary adjustments. In children, the intestine usually heals in three to six months. Intestinal healing may take several years in adults. Once the intestine completely heals, the body will be able to absorb nutrients properly.

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