Home Health Cold and Flu: Types, Causes, Symptoms, Treatment, Risk Factors, Diagnosis, Complications, Prevention

Cold and Flu: Types, Causes, Symptoms, Treatment, Risk Factors, Diagnosis, Complications, Prevention

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What’s the difference between a cold and the flu?

Flu and the common cold are both respiratory illnesses which can cause similar symptoms but they are caused by different viruses. In general, flu is worse than the common cold, and symptoms are more common and intense. Colds are usually milder than flu.Your symptoms help you tell the difference between them.

Symptoms of Cold and Flu

Both a cold and the flu share a few common symptoms. People with either illness often experience:

  • sneezing
  • body aches
  • general fatigue
  • runny or stuffy nose

As a rule, flu symptoms are more severe than cold symptoms.

Another distinct difference between the two is how serious they are. Colds rarely cause other health conditions or problems. But the flu can lead to

  • sinus and ear infections,
  • pneumonia, and
  • sepsis.

To determine whether your symptoms are from a cold or from the flu, you need to see your doctor. Your doctor will run tests that can help determine what’s behind your symptoms.

If your doctor diagnoses a cold, you’ll only need to treat your symptoms until the virus has run its course. These treatments can include using over-the-counter (OTC) cold medications, staying hydrated, and getting plenty of rest.

Taking flu medicine early in the virus’ cycle may help reduce severity of illness and shorten the time that you are sick. Rest and hydration are also beneficial for people with the flu. Much like the common cold, the flu just needs time to work its way through your body.

Symptoms of Flu

Here are some of the common symptoms of the flu.

Fever

The flu almost always causes an increase in your body temperature. This is also known as a fever. Most flu-related fevers range from a low-grade fever around 100°F (37.8°C) to as high as 104°F (40°C).

Although alarming, it’s not uncommon for young children to have higher fevers than adults. If you suspect your child has the flu, see your doctor.

You may feel “feverish” when you have an elevated temperature. Symptoms include chills, sweats, or being cold despite your body’s high temperature. Most fevers last for less than one week, usually around three to four days.

Cough

A dry, persistent cough is common with the flu. The cough may worsen, becoming uncomfortable and painful. You may also experience shortness of breath or chest discomfort during this time. Many flu-related coughs can last for about two weeks.

Muscle aches

These flu-related muscle pains are most common in your

  • neck,
  • back,
  • arms, and
  • legs.

They can often be severe, making it difficult to move even when trying to perform basic tasks.

Headache

Your first symptom of the flu may be

  • a severe headache.
  • eye symptoms,
  • including light and sound sensitivity, go along with your headache.

Fatigue

Feeling tired is a not-so-obvious symptom of the flu. Feeling generally unwell can be a sign of many conditions. These feelings of tiredness and fatigue may come on fast and be difficult to overcome.

Flu shot

Influenza is a serious virus that leads to many illnesses each year. You don’t have to be young or have a compromised immune system to get gravely ill from the infection. Healthy people can get sick from the flu and spread it to friends and family.

In some cases, the flu can even be deadly. Flu-related deaths are most common in people over age 65 but can be seen in children and young adults.

Prevention of Cold and Flu

The best and most efficient way to avoid the flu and prevent spreading it is to get a vaccination. The flu vaccine is available as an injectable shot. The more people get vaccinated against the flu, the less the flu can spread. Vaccination can also help shorten the time that you are sick and can reduce the symptoms.

How does the flu shot work

To make the vaccine, scientists select the strains of the flu virus that research suggests will be the most common in the coming flu season. Millions of vaccines with those strains are produced and distributed.

Once you receive the vaccine, your body begins producing antibodies against those strains of the virus. These antibodies provide protection against the virus. If you come into contact with the flu virus at a later point, you can avoid an infection.

You may get sick if you end up coming into contact with a different strain of the virus. But the symptoms will be less severe because you had the vaccination.

Flu shot

Doctors recommend that everyone over the age of six months receive the flu vaccine. This is especially true for people in high-risk categories, like:

  • adults over age 65
  • women who are pregnant
  • children under age 5
  • people with weakened immune systems due to chronic illness

Most doctors also recommend that everyone gets their flu vaccine by the end of October. This way your body has time to develop the right antibodies before flu season kicks into gear. It takes about two weeks for antibodies to develop against the flu after vaccination.

Duration of flu

Most people recover from the flu in about one week. But it may take several more days for you to feel back to your usual self. It’s not uncommon to feel tired for several days after your flu symptoms have subsided.

It’s important to stay home from school or work until you’ve been free of fever for at least 24 hours (and that’s without taking fever-reducing medications). If you have the flu, you’re contagious a day before your symptoms appear and up to five to seven days afterward.

 Flu shot side effects

Many people report avoiding the flu vaccine each year for fear that it will make them sick. It’s important to understand that the flu vaccine can’t cause you to develop the flu. You aren’t going to become sick because you received the vaccine. Flu vaccines contain dead flu virus. These strains aren’t strong enough to cause an illness.

However, you may experience some side effects from the flu shot. These side effects are often mild and only last a short period of time. The side effects of a shot outweigh the possible symptoms of a flu infection later.

The most common side effects of the flu shot include:

  • soreness around the flu shot injection site
  • low-grade fever in the days immediately following the injection
  • mild aches and stiffness
    Any side effects that do occur often last only a day or two. Many people won’t experience any side effects.

On rare occasions, some people may have a serious allergic reaction to the vaccination. If you’ve had an allergic reaction to any vaccine or medication before, talk with your doctor.

Treatment of Cold and Flu

Most cases of the flu are mild enough that you can treat yourself at home without prescription medications. It’s important you stay home and avoid contact with other people when you first notice flu symptoms.

You should also:

  • Drink plenty of fluids. This includes water, soup, and low-sugar flavored drinks.
  • Treat symptoms such as headache and fever with OTC medications.
  • Wash your hands to prevent spreading the virus to other surfaces or to other people in your house.
  • Cover your coughs and sneezes with tissues. Immediately dispose of those tissues.
    If symptoms become worse, call your doctor. They may prescribe an antiviral medication. The sooner you take this medicine, the more effective it is. You should start treatment within 48 hours from when your symptoms start.

Contact your doctor as soon as symptoms appear if you’re at high risk for flu-related complications. These high-risk groups include:

  • people with weakened immune systems
  • women who are pregnant
  • people over age 65
  • children under age 5

Your doctor may test for the flu virus right away. They may also prescribe an antiviral medication to prevent complications.

Flu season
In the United States, the main flu season stretches from late October to March. Cases of the flu peak during February, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). But you can get the flu at any time of the year.

You’re more likely to get sick during the fall and winter months. This is because you’re spending more time in close quarters with other people and are also exposed to lots of different illnesses.

You’re more likely to catch the flu if you already have a different infection. This is because other infections can weaken your immune system and make you more vulnerable to new ones.

Being ill from the flu is no fun. But remedies for flu symptoms are available, and many of them provide great relief.

Keep these treatments in mind if you have the flu:

Pain relievers. Analgesics like acetaminophen and ibuprofen are often recommended to help ease symptoms.

These include

  • muscle aches and pains,
  • headache, and
  • fever.

WARNING
Children and teens should never take aspirin for an illness. This is because of the risk of a rare, but fatal, condition called Reye’s syndrome.

Decongestants.

This type of medication can help relieve nasal congestion and pressure in your sinuses and ears. Each type of decongestant can cause some side effects, so be sure to read labels to find the one that’s best for you.

Expectorants.

This type of medication helps loosen thick sinus secretions that make your head feel clogged and cause coughing.
Cough suppressants. Coughing is a common flu symptom, and some medications can help relieve it. If you don’t want to take medication, some cough drops use honey and lemon to ease a sore throat and cough.
Be careful not to mix medications. Using unnecessary medication could cause unwanted side effects. It’s best to take medicines that apply to your predominant symptoms.

In the meantime, get plenty of rest. Your body is fighting hard against the influenza virus, so you need to give it plenty of downtime. Call in sick, stay at home, and get better. Don’t go to work or school with a fever.

You should also drink plenty of fluids like

  • Water,
  • juice,
  • sports drinks, and
  • soup can help you stay hydrated.

Warm liquids like soup and tea have the added benefit of helping ease pain from a sore throat.

Flu symptoms in adults

Flu-related fever appears in adults and can be severe. For many adults, a sudden high fever is the earliest symptom of a flu infection.

Adults rarely spike a fever unless they have a serious infection. The flu virus causes an abrupt high temperature that’s greater than 100°F (37.8°C).

Other viral infections, like a cold, may cause low-grade fevers.

Beyond this, children and adults share many of the same symptoms. Some people may experience one or several symptoms more than another person. Each person’s influenza infection will be different.

Flu incubation period

The typical incubation period for the flu is one to four days. Incubation refers to the period during which the virus is in your body and developing. During this time, you may not show any symptoms of the virus. That doesn’t mean that you aren’t contagious. Many people are capable of spreading the virus to others a day before symptoms appear.

The millions of tiny droplets, which are produced when we sneeze, cough, or talk, spread the flu virus. These droplets enter your body through your nose, mouth, or eyes. You can also pick up the flu by touching a surface that has the virus on it and then touching your nose, mouth, or eyes.

 “24-hour flu”

The “24-hour flu” is a common infection that has nothing to do with influenza, despite sharing a name. The 24-hour flu is caused by a genus of viruses called norovirus.

The symptoms of a norovirus infection include:

  • diarrhea
  • nausea
  • vomiting
  • stomach cramping
    These symptoms occur in the gastrointestinal system. That’s why the 24-hour flu is sometimes called a “stomach flu.” Although it’s called the “24-hour flu,” you may be ill for up to three days.

The symptoms of the 24-hour flu and influenza (the flu) are different. The flu is a respiratory illness. Respiratory system symptoms of the flu include:

  • coughing
  • eadaches
  • fever
  • runny nose
  • body aches
    Some people with influenza may experience nausea and vomiting while they’re sick. But these symptoms aren’t as common in adults.

Flu contagious

If you have the flu, you’re contagious. Many people are contagious and can spread the virus as early as a day before they show symptoms. In other words, you may be sharing the virus before you even realize that you’re sick.

You may still be contagious five to seven days after your symptoms appear. Young children are often contagious for more than seven days after symptoms first appear. People who have a weak immune system may experience the virus symptoms longer, too.

If you have the flu, stay home. Do your part to prevent the spread of the virus to other people. If you’re diagnosed, alert anyone you came into contact with on the day before your symptoms appeared.

Early symptoms of the flu

Symptoms of the flu appear quickly. This sudden onset of symptoms is often the flu’s first hallmark. With similar illnesses, such as a cold, it can take several days for symptoms to emerge.

Another common early symptom of the flu is the breadth of pain. People with the flu report feeling uncomfortable all over their body as an early symptom.

You may feel as if you’ve been “hit by a truck.” Getting out of bed may prove to be difficult and slow going. This feeling may be an early symptom of the flu.

After this, other symptoms of the flu may begin appearing, making it obvious you have the virus.

Natural flu remedies

If left untreated, the typical flu often goes away in about one week. During that time, you have several treatment options for making symptoms easier to handle.

Prescription antiviral medicines can reduce the severity of the infection. They can also shorten its duration. Some OTC treatments can ease the symptoms of the infection. Even some natural flu remedies may be helpful for easing symptoms.

Some people may find natural flu remedies to be helpful. Medical research supports some treatments that include:

Soup

Warm chicken soup works on many levels as a flu remedy. The warm liquid can help ease a sore throat and provide hydration and electrolytes. Studies have shown it can also change the movement of white blood cells in your body. This decreases inflammation.

Honey

Honey. A lot of “natural” cough and cold medicines contain honey. Honey is an effective cough suppressant. Add some to your tea or eat a small spoonful if you’re trying to stop a coughing fit.

Ginger

Ginger. Drop a few slices of ginger into your tea or a glass of warm water, and sip. This root has healing properties that can ease a sore throat and suppress a cough. It can also help with nausea.
Probiotics. Increase the good bacteria in your gut while your body is fighting an infection. A healthy gut microbiome can boost your immune system, prevent new infections, and promote healing.

Medications for Cold and Flu

OTC medicines can help relieve symptoms of the flu, but they won’t treat it. If you have the flu and are looking for symptom relief, consider these medicines:

Decongestants.

Nasal decongestants help break up mucus in your sinuses. This allows you to blow your nose. Decongestants come in several forms. These include nasal decongestants that are inhaled and oral (pill) decongestants.

Cough suppressants.

Coughing, especially at night, is a common flu symptom. OTC cough medicines can ease or suppress your cough reflex. Cough drops or lozenges can soothe a sore throat and suppress coughing.

 

OTC “flu medicines” often contain several of these types of medicines in one pill. If you take one of these combination medications, avoid taking other medicine with it. This ensures that you don’t take too much of any one type of medicine.

Expectorants. This type of medication may help you cough up phlegm if you have a lot of mucus or congestion in your chest.

Antihistamines. This type of medication is in cold and allergy medicines. It may not be helpful for everyone. But it can relieve watery eyes, stuffy nose, and sinus headaches if allergies are also causing your symptoms.

Causes of flu

The flu is a virus that’s shared in several ways. First, you can pick up the virus from a person near you who has the flu and sneezes, coughs, or talks.

The virus can also live on inanimate objects for two to eight hours. If someone with the virus touched a common surface, like a door handle or a keyboard, and you touch the same surface, you could get the virus. Once you have the virus on your hand, it can enter your body by touching your mouth, eyes, or nose.

You can vaccinate against the flu. An annual flu vaccine helps your body prepare for exposure to the virus. But flu viruses are morphing and changing. That’s why you need the flu shot every year. A flu shot helps you by activating your immune system to make antibodies against particular strains of the virus. Antibodies are what prevent infections.

It’s possible to get the flu after receiving the flu shot if you come into contact with other strains of the virus. Even then, it’s likely your symptoms will be much less severe than if you hadn’t had the vaccine at all. This is because different strains of flu virus share common elements (called cross-protection), which means that the flu vaccine is able to work against them, too.

Location to get a flu shot

Most doctors’ offices carry the vaccine. You may also get the vaccine at:

  • pharmacies
  • walk-in medical clinics
  • county or city health departments
  • college health centers
    Some employers and schools also offer flu shot clinics on site. Many locations begin promoting flu vaccines as flu season approaches. Some even offer incentives such as coupons to encourage you to receive your vaccine.

If you can’t find a flu shot provider, use a flu shot locator like the Flu Vaccine Finder or the HealthMap Vaccine Finder. These websites list businesses, phone numbers, and hours of operation.

Flu shot for kids

Each year, hundreds of thousands of children get sick from the influenza virus. Some of these illnesses are severe and require hospitalization; some even result in death.

Children who are sick from the flu are often at a higher risk than adults who are sick from the flu. For example, children under age five are more likely to need medical treatment for the flu. Severe complications from a flu infection are most common in children under age two. If your child has a chronic medical condition, like asthma or diabetes, the flu may be worse.

See your doctor right away if your child has been exposed to the flu or shows flu symptoms.

The best way to protect your children against a flu infection is with a flu vaccine. Vaccinate children against the infection each year. Doctors recommend flu vaccines for children starting at six months old.

Influenza vaccines are available as injections. Check with your children’s doctor before they get vaccines.

Some children between ages six months and eight years may need two doses for protection against the virus. If your child is receiving a vaccine for the first time, they will likely need two doses.

If your child only received one dose in the flu season prior, they may need two doses this flu season. Ask your child’s doctor how many doses your child needs.

Children under six months of age are too young for a flu vaccine. To protect them, make sure the people around them get vaccinated. This includes family members and care providers.