Use the colour and texture of a variety of fruit and vegetables to add interest to your meals.
Fruit and vegetables should be an important part of your daily diet. They are naturally good and contain vitamins and minerals that can help to keep you healthy. They can also help protect against some diseases.
Most people will benefit from eating more fruit and vegetables as part of a well-balanced, regular diet and a healthy, active lifestyle. There are many varieties of fruit and vegetables available and many ways to prepare, cook and serve them.
You should eat at least five serves of vegetables and two serves of fruit each day. Choose different colours and varieties.
A serve of vegetables is about one cup of raw salad vegetables or 1/2 cup of cooked.
A serve of fruit is about one medium piece, 2 small pieces of 1 cup canned (no added sugar).
Vitamins and minerals in fruit and vegetables
Fruits and vegetables contain many vitamins and minerals that are good for your health. These include vitamins A (beta-carotene), C and E, magnesium, zinc, phosphorous and folic acid. Folic acid may reduce blood levels of homocysteine, a substance that may be a risk factor for coronary heart disease.
Fruit and vegetables for good health
Fruits and vegetables are low in fat, salt and sugar. They are a good source of dietary fibre. As part of a well-balanced, regular diet and a healthy, active lifestyle, a high intake of fruit and vegetables can help you to:
Reduce obesity and maintain a healthy weight
Lower your cholesterol
Lower your blood pressure.
Fruit and vegetables and protection against diseases
Vegetables and fruit contain phytochemicals, or plant chemicals.
These biologically active substances can help to protect you from some diseases. Scientific research shows that if you regularly eat lots of fruit and vegetables, you have a lower risk of:
Type 2 diabetes
Heart (cardiovascular) disease – when fruits and vegetables are eaten as food, not taken as supplements
Cancer – some forms of cancer, later in life
High blood pressure (hypertension).
Types of fruit
Fruit is the sweet, fleshy, edible part of a plant. It generally contains seeds. Fruits are usually eaten raw, although some varieties can be cooked. They come in a wide variety of colours, shapes and flavours. Common types of fruits that are readily available include:
Apples and pears
Citrus – oranges, grapefruits, mandarins and limes
Stone fruit – nectarines, apricots, peaches and plums
Tropical and exotic – bananas and mangoes
Berries – strawberries, raspberries, blueberries, kiwifruit and passionfruit
Melons – watermelons, rockmelons and honeydew melons
Tomatoes and avocados.
Types of vegetables
Vegetables are available in many varieties and can be classified into biological groups or ‘families’, including:
Leafy green – lettuce, spinach and silverbeet
Cruciferous – cabbage, cauliflower, Brussels sprouts and broccoli
Marrow – pumpkin, cucumber and zucchini
Root – potato, sweet potato and yam
Edible plant stem – celery and asparagus
Allium – onion, garlic and shallot.
Legumes or pulses contain nutrients that are especially valuable. Legumes need to be cooked before they are eaten – this improves their nutritional quality, aids digestion and eliminates any harmful toxins. Legumes come in many forms including:
Soy products – tofu (bean curd) and soybeans
Legume flours – chickpea flour (besan), lentil flour and soy flour
Dried beans and peas – haricot beans, red kidney beans, chickpeas and lentils
Fresh beans and peas – green peas, green beans, butter beans, broad beans and snow peas.
Colours of fruits and vegetables
You will get the most health benefits and protection against disease if you eat a wide variety of fruits and vegetables.
Foods of similar colours generally contain similar protective compounds. Try to eat a rainbow of colourful fruits and vegetables every day to get the full range of health benefits.
Red foods – like tomatoes and watermelon. These contain lycopene, which is thought to be important for fighting prostate cancer and heart disease
Green vegetables – like spinach and kale. These contain lutein and zeaxanthin, which may help protect against age-related eye disease
Blue and purple foods – like blueberries and eggplant. These contain anthocyanins, which may help protect the body from cancer
White foods – like cauliflower. These contain sulforaphane and may also help protect against some cancers.
Selecting fruits and vegetables
To maximise nutrients and appeal, buy and serve different types of fruit and vegetables. Try to buy fruits and vegetables that are in season, and choose for freshness and quality.
Eat with the seasons – this is nature’s way of making sure our bodies get a healthy mix of nutrients and plant chemicals
Try something new – try new recipes and buy new fruit or vegetables as part of your weekly shopping
Let colours guide you – get different combinations of nutrients by putting a ‘rainbow’ of colours (green, white, yellow–orange, blue–purple, red) on your plate.
Fruit and vegetable serving suggestions for your family’s health
Vegetables and fruit are a handy snack food and are easily carried to work or school. Include them in everyone’s meals and snacks for a healthy, well-balanced diet. Some suggestions include:
- Keep snack-size fruit and vegetable portions easily accessible in your fridge.
- Keep fresh fruit on the bench or table.
- Add fruit and vegetables to your favourite family recipes or as additions to your usual menus.
- Think up new ways to serve fruits and vegetables.
- Use the colour and texture of a variety of fruit and vegetables to add interest to your meals.
Some simple ways to serve fruits and vegetables include:
- vegetable soups
- snack pack, stewed or canned fruits or dried fruits.
- fruit and vegetable salads
- vegetable or meat-and-vegetable stir-fries
- raw fruit and vegetables
Limit fruit juice, as it does not contain the same amount of nutrients as fresh fruit. It also contains a lot of sugars. These sugars are not necessarily good for your health, even though they are ‘natural’. Instead, have a drink of water and a serve of fruit.
Daily allowances of fruit and vegetables
Different fruits and vegetables contain different nutrients. It is recommended that adults eat at least five kinds of vegetable and two kinds of fruit every day.
Children have a smaller stomach capacity and higher energy needs than adults. They cannot eat the same serving sizes as adults. However, you should encourage your children to eat a variety of fruits and vegetables. By eating well, your children will have the energy they need to play, concentrate better, learn, sleep better and build stronger teeth and bones. Building good habits in their early years can also provide the protection of a healthy diet throughout their lives.
Preparation and cooking of fruit and vegetables
Vegetables are often cooked, although some kinds are eaten raw. Cooking and processing can damage some nutrients and phytochemicals in plant foods.
Suggestions to get the best out of your fruit and vegetables include:
- Try fruit or vegetables pureed into smoothies.
- Use a sharp knife to cut fresh fruits to avoid bruising.
- Cut off only the inedible parts of vegetables – sometimes the best nutrients are found in the skin, just below the skin or in the leaves.
- Use stir-fry, grill, microwave, bake or steam methods with non-stick cookware and mono-unsaturated oils.
- Serve meals with vegetable pestos, salsas, chutneys and vinegars in place of sour cream, butter and creamy sauces.
- Do not overcook, to reduce nutrient loss.
- Eat raw vegetables and fruits if possible.
Some nutrients such as carotenoids may actually be increased if food is cooked. For example, tomato has more carotenoids, especially lycopene, when it is cooked – a good reason to prepare fruits and vegetables in a variety of ways.
Once you’ve prepared and cooked your vegetables and fruit, spend some time on presentation. People are more likely to enjoy a meal if it’s full of variety and visually appealing, as well as tasty. Sit at the table to eat and enjoy your food without distractions like television.